Mischel and Bandura: Cognitive Social Learning Theory
Traits in Cognitive Social Learning Theory: Mischel
The Trait Controversy: Mischel's Challengepersonality coefficient
The Consistency Paradox
The Situational Context of Behavior
situational hedges: "Person does x when y."
"Johnny will hit back [behavior] when teased [situational hedge]."
Imagine combinations of these behaviors:
Illustration of a Dispositional Construct (Shyness) as an If-Then Linkage between a Category of Conditions and a Category of Behaviors [See Figure 12.1 in the Cloninger text on page 357.]
Cognitive Person Variables
Encoding Strategies and Personal Constructs
personal constructs: trait terms people use to describe themselves and other people
prototypes: typical exemplars of "fuzzy" categories
descriptions of events
(must assess individual meanings of stimuli)
Examples of Cognitive and Behavioral Construction Competencies:
Subjective Stimulus Valuesdesirability of outcomes (given the particular individual’s goals or values)
Self-Regulatory Systems and Plans
Delay of Gratification
Mischel's research with children
Preschool Children Who are Better Able to Delay of Gratification Become High Schoolers Who:
Delay of gratification is a core "ego strength"
Performance in Cognitive Social Learning Theory: Bandura
Reciprocal Determinismmutual influences of
Self-Regulation of Behavior: The Self-System[See Figure 12.3 in the Cloninger text on page 366]
self-observation (of performance)
judgmental process (standards)
self-response (e.g., rewards)
Efficacy and Striving Toward Goals
Physiological Correlates of Efficacy
Processes Influencing Learning
Attentional Processes: Observing the BehaviorModel: distinctive, affective valence, complexity, prevalence, functional value
Observer: sensory capacities, arousal level, motivation, perceptual set, past reinforcement
Retention Processes: Remembering Itsymbolic coding, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal
Motor Reproduction Processes: Doing Itphysical capabilities, availability of component responses, self-observation of reproductions, accuracy feedback
Motivational Processes: Wanting Itexternal reinforcement, vicarious reinforcement, self-reinforcement
Observational Learning and Modeling
Learning may occur without reinforcement.
standards for behavior
Modeling of Self-Reinforcement
Modeling of Aggression
Modeling also occurs in adulthood.
Therapyuse learning principles
treatment of phobias, etc.
varies with behavioral domain
High self-efficacy leads to persistence toward our goals.
Efficacy expectations and outcome expectations. [graphic presented in lecture]
Changing Efficacy Expectations Through Therapy
Efficacy and Striving Toward Goals: The goals we set are important.
The Person in the Social Environment
Collective efficacy helps us achieve difficult goals together.
moral disengagement: failure to regulate one's behavior to live up to high moral standards
An interview with Albert Bandura: